Database management is the method for managing information that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications making edits as needed, monitoring data changes, and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve huge amounts of data for a wide range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.
A database consists of tables that organize data in accordance with a specific scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permit cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of attributes or fields that provide information about data entities. The most well-known kind of database is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to change several databases.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the different data models) and could also include virtual tables which are generated from generic data to improve performance.